Rural Development Sector
The Global Context
Most poverty in the world is rural, and reaching the International Development Targets means giving high priority to rural development.
The challenges of globalization, urbanization, the ‘de-agrarianization’ of rural space, the increasing diversity of rural environments, and the special problems of low potential areas as in the case of small-scale farming have also led to unprecedented pressures.
Regional imbalances also reflect skewed development efforts.
The context is increasingly diversified and complex.
Global supply chains pose new threats and problems: alternative and innovative strategies are required to deal with emerging issues.
Major Initiatives for Rural Development
- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP).
- Education (Sarva Shikhsa Abhiyan and others).
- Skill Development.
- Health (National Rural Health Mission: NRHM).
- Water and Sanitation (Total Sanitation Campaign: TSC).
- Energy (RGGVY).
- Appropriate Technology.
- Infrastructure and Amenities (Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas: PURA)
Some Key Issues in India
- India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world, but problems of poverty and social exclusion persist particularly in rural areas.
- The rural – urban continuum highlights that livelihoods are inter-dependent rather than dichotomous.
- Increased diversification in the pursuit of multi-functional and multi-spatial livelihoods.
- Persistent credit and input constraints.
- Market changes require responsive specialist techniques, quality control, information-intensive technologies and targeted assistance.
- Decentralized governance, capacity building and institutional support is central to program implementation.
- Creating participatory grassroots structures.